Turning processing is a mechanical processing by cutting external and internal surfaces of rotation, including cylindrical and conical, facing, cutting, chamfering, fillet processing, grooving, tapping of internal and external threads on lathes. Whetting is one of the most ancient technical operations, which was mechanized with the help of a primitive lathe. The rotational move of the work piece is called the main cutting move, and the translational move of the cutting tool - the serve move. There are also auxiliary moves that are not directly related to the cutting process, but provide transportation and fixing of the workpiece on the machine, its insertion and thechange in the rotation frequency of the workpiece or the speed of the translational move of the tool, etc.
A lathe is a machine for cutting (turning) workpieces from metals and other materials in the form of bodies of rotation. On lathes, turning and boring of cylindrical, conical and shaped surfaces are performed, threading, pruning and machining of the ends, drilling, reaming and deploying holes, etc. The workpiece receives rotation from the spindle, the cutter - cutting tool - moves along with the carriage slide from running shaft or spindle, receiving rotation from the feeder. The lathe group of machines includes machines performing various operations of turning: stripping, chamfering, boring, etc. The machines are designed mainly for processing external and internal cylindrical, conical and shaped surfaces, cutting threads and machining the end surfaces of parts such as bodies of revolution with using a variety of incisors, drills, countersinks, spreads, taps and dies. The use of additional special devices on machines (for grinding, milling, drilling of radial holes and other types of processing) significantly expands the technological capabilities of the equipment.
The most famous lathes in Soviet times are 1K62 and 16K20. Exactly this equipment is successfully used in the production of the private production and commercial enterprise“Matrix”. The screw-cutting lathe is designed to perform a variety of turning operations for black and non-ferrous metals, including turning of the cones, cutting of the metric, modular, inch and pitches threads. Screw-cutting lathes are the most versatile lathe group machines and are mainly used in single and small-scale production.
The structural arrangement of lathes is almost the same. The main nodes of the 16K20 machine as an example are: a frame on which all machine mechanisms are mounted; front (spindle) headstock in which the gearbox, spindle and other elements are placed; a feed box that transmits, with the necessary ratio, the movement from the spindle to the caliper (using the lead screw when tapping or running the roller processing other surfaces); apron, in which the rotation of the screw or roller is converted into the translational movement of the support with the tool; in the tailstock quillcan be installeda center to support the workpiece or a core tool (drill, reamer, etc.) to process the central hole in the part fixed in the chuck; the support serves to secure the cutting tool and to message about the feed movements to it. The support consists of the lower carriage moving along the guide rails of the frame. On the directions of the lower carriagethe cross carriages run in the direction perpendicular to the center line, on which is located the incisive carriage with the tool holders. The incisal carriage is mounted on the swivel part, which can be installed at an angle to the center line of the lathe.
The main options of the lathes are the largest diameter of the workpiece over the casing and the largest distance between the centers. The important size of the lathe is also the largest diameter of the workpiece, machined over the cross carriage of the support. PPCE “Matrix”
Performs complex restoration and repair of metal-cutting equipment assemblies.